Article Index "Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects" Article Index

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ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND SMALL-SCALE LIVESTOCK PROJECTS

By: "Linda Jacobs, Tsaile, Arizona"
Original Document
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Table Of Contents
Preface
Chapter I - A Development Philosophy

    A DIFFERENT APPROACH
    WHAT IS A SMALL-SCALE LIVESTOCK PROJECT?
    ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND LIVESTOCK PROJECTS

Chapter II - IMPORTANCE OF ECOLOGY IN LIVESTOCK-PROJECT PLANNING

    ECOLOGY DEFINED
    Ecosystems
    Ecological Balance
    The Web of Life
    BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
    CARRYING CAPACITY
    COMPETITION AMONG ANIMALS
    FOOD QUANTITY AND QUALITY
    VALUE OF ANIMALS IN A FARMING SYSTEM
    MANAGEMENT BY ISOLATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT
    THE ENVIRONMENT AND LOCAL CULTURE
    TRENDS IN LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

Chapter III - BEGINNING THE PLANNING PROCESS

    THE FIRST STEP ... INFORMATION GATHERING
    COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
    ENVIRONMENTAL AND COMMUNITY GUIDELINES
    Environmental Guidelines
    Community Guidelines
    PLANNING QUESTIONS

Chapter IV - LIVESTOCK CHARACTERISTICS: BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING

    APPROPRIATE LIVESTOCK FOR FARMING SYSTEMS
      Large Animals Versus Small Animals
      Browsers and Grazers
    SOME COMMON LIVESTOCK AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
      Cattle
      Water Buffalo
      Horses, Mules, and Donkeys
      Sheep
      Goats
      Camels, Alpacas, and Llamas
      Pigs
      Poultry
      Rabbits and Guinea Pigs
    CHOOSING LIVESTOCK THAT FIT THE ENVIRONMENT
    INTRODUCTION OF NEW BREEDS OR SPECIES
    PLANNING QUESTIONS

Chapter V - THE SOIL AND NUTRIENT CYCLES

    THE CARBON CYCLE
    THE WATER CYCLE
    THE NITROGEN CYCLE
    SOIL STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION
    ANIMAL FEED REQUIREMENTS
    FEED MANAGEMENT
    KINDS OF FEED AND FORAGE
    FEED CONTAMINATION
    PASTURE AND RANGE MANAGEMENT
    ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES
    PLANNING QUESTIONS

Chapter VI - MANAGEMENT OF WASTES AND NUTRIENTS

    COMPOSITION OF MANURE
    BEDDING
    RECYCLING NUTRIENTS
    MANURE AS A POLLUTANT
    MANURE STORAGE
    COMPOSTING
    MANURE MIXED IN WATER
    BIOGAS DIGESTERS
    PLANNING QUESTIONS

Chapter VII - HEALTH AND HUSBANDRY

    CAUSES OF DISEASE
    DISEASE RESISTANCE
    METHODS OF CONTROL
      Quarantine and Sanitation
      Vaccination
      Medication
      Environmental Modification
    THE BREEDING PROGRAM
      Fertility
      Breeding Season
      Selection of Stock
    ANIMAL CARE AND LOCAL CULTURES
    PLANNING QUESTIONS

Chapter VIII - AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

    LEVELS OF INTEGRATION
    WILD ANIMALS IN THE FARMING SYSTEM
    AGROFORESTRY
    AQUACULTURE
    GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATION
    PLANNING QUESTIONS

Chapter IX - MAKING THE PLAN WORK

    IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES
    DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS
    IMPLEMENTING THE PROJECT
      Training Programs
      Funding
    MONITORING THE PROJECT
    PROJECT EVALUATION
    FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

APPENDICES

    A. ECOLOGICAL MINI-GUIDELINES FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
    B. SERVICES AVAILABLE FROM HEIFER PROJECT INTERNATIONAL AND WINROCK INTERNATIONAL
    C. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    D. ADDRESSES FOR REFERENCES

ABOUT CODEL
Coordination in Development (CODEL) is a private, not-for-profit consortium of 43 development agencies working in developing countries. CODEL funds community development activities that are locally initiated and ecumenically implemented. These activities include agriculture, water, forestry health, appropriate technology, and training projects.

The Environment and Development Program of CODEL serves the private and voluntary development community by providing workshops, information, and materials designed to document the urgency, feasibility, and potential of an approach to small-scale development that stresses the interdependence of human and natural resources. This manual is one of several materials developed under the Program to assist development workers in taking the physical environment into account during project planning, implementation, and evaluation. For more information, contact CODEL Environment and Development Program at 475 Riverside Drive, Room 1842, New York, New York 10115 USA.

ABOUT VITA
Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) is a private non-profit international development organization. It makes available to individuals and groups in developing countries a variety of information and technical resources aimed at fostering self-sufficiency: needs assessment and program development support; by-mail and on-site consulting services; information systems training; and management of field projects. VITA promotes the use of appropriate small-scale technologies, especially in the area of renewable energy. VITA's extensive documentation center and worldwide roster of volunteer technical experts enable it to respond to thousands of technical inquiries each year. It also publishes a quarterly newsletter and a variety of technical manuals and bulletins. For more information, contact VITA at 1600 Wilson Blvd., Suite 500, Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA.

ABOUT WINROCK INTERNATIONAL
Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development is a private, nonprofit institution founded to help alleviate human hunger and poverty through agricultural development. In partnership with private voluntary organizations, governments, aid agencies, agricultural research centers, and others, Winrock assists people and nations to increase food production and income opportunities. The institute provides both short- and long-term technical assistance to improve farmers, productivity and to strengthen the research and extension systems that support agriculture. Winrock emphasizes human resource development by supporting developing country students in degree training; sponsoring training programs for farmers and people who work with farmers; and producing training and informational materials. Winrock works in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the United States. For more information, contact Winrock International at Route 3, Morrilton, AR 72110 USA.

ABOUT HEIFER PROJECT INTERNATIONAL
Heifer Project International is a nonprofit organization founded in 1944 and is supported by donations of individuals, churches, and grants from corporations and governments. HPI has provided assistance to people in more than 100 countries. The purpose of Heifer Project International is to assist small farmers to achieve a better living through more efficient use of human and natural resources. The method is to introduce good quality livestock and to demonstrate and teach proper management.

HPI provides funding, livestock, and materials for livestock development projects. It also provides technical expertise and training, publishes a newsletter on appropriate practical livestock technology and distributes practical educational materials.

HPI assistance is provided without regard to race, creed, or political origin, and in a manner which requires the recipient to share the increase usual]y by passing on the first female offspring to other families. Projects are designed so as to be self-supporting and perpetuating. To accomplish this, plans and agreements are made with indigenous organizations.

GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING SERIES
Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Agricultural Projects, 1979 (Also in Spanish and French)

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects, 1981 (Also in Spanish)

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects, 1983 (Translations in Spanish and French in process)

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects, 1985 (English only)

Order from:
VITA Publication Services
1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA


PREFACE
This manual is the fifth volume in the Guidelines for Planning series. The series was developed in response to needs of private development agency field and counterpart staff for simplified technical information in order to plan environmentally sound small-scale projects in Third World countries. Titles of the other volumes in the series are listed on the opposite page.

The preparation of this volume has been a collaborative effort of Coordination in Development, Inc. (CODEL), Heifer Project International (HPI), and Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development. An Advisory Committee composed of representatives of the three agencies guided the preparation of the manual. These include Andres Martinez, Winrock International; the Rev. John Ostdiek, CODEL; Armin Schmidt, Heifer Project International; in addition to the three coordinators listed at the end of this preface.

Initial research was carried out and a basic draft prepared by Dr. Richard Rice, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Arizona and Dr. Milo Cox, School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona. The coordinators are grateful to Drs. Rice and Cox for their contribution to the final product. The text was further developed and extensively revised by Linda Jacobs.

Linda Jacobs, the author of this volume, has prepared the illustrations for four of the five volumes in the Guidelines for Planninq series. Ms. Jacobs holds a degree in Biology from Cornell University and served with the Peace Corps in Colombia. For the last eight years she has been living and working with Native Americans in Arizona. She has brought to the project a special interest in, and small-farm experience with livestock. In addition, Ms. Jacobs made good use of her writing and illustrating skills. She is presently teaching at the Navajo Community College, Tsaile, Arizona.

Following the procedure used for the previous volumes, a lengthy review process has involved a number of technical resource persons and potential users in the field. The following have reviewed the manual in addition to the Advisory Committee:

    Charles D. Bonham, Colorado State University
    Milo Cox, University of Arizona
    John Dieterly, Heifer Project International
    Peter F. Ffolliott, University of Arizona
    Peter J. Grill, Mennonite Central Committee
    I.F. Harder, Heifer Project International
    Sister Sharee Hurtgen, St. Jude Hospital, St. Lucia
    Robert K. Pelant, Heifer Project International
    Roald Peterson, UN/FAO (retired)
    James O'Rourke, Utah State University
    Richard W. Rice, University of Arizona
    Sister Mary Ann Smith, CODEL
    Ron Tempest, Germantown Academy
    Gregg Wiitala, Technoserve, Inc., Kenya
    Gerald G. Williams, Heifer Project International

These reviewers offered extensive, substantive, and constructive suggestions for improving the review draft. The suggestions were a significant assistance in preparing the final manuscript. The coordinators greatly appreciate the contributions of these reviewers and the other members of the Advisory Committee.

We welcome comments from readers of the book. A questionnaire is inserted for your convenience. Please share your reactions with us.

    James DeVries, Heifer Project International
    Will R. Getz, Winrock International
    Helen L. Vukasin, CODEL

Chapter I - A DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY
This manual is designed for development assistance workers and others who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects. Although aimed specifically at those working in less-developed areas of the tropics and subtropics, these environmental guidelines apply to almost any region of the world. They stress:

  • ecological principles that relate to livestock production

  • the role of livestock in the farming system and local environment

  • environmental factors that affect the success of a livestock project

  • environmentally sound livestock management practices

A DIFFERENT APPROACH
Most animal science manuals have focused on the care and management of common breeds of domestic animals to achieve greater production. This manual emphasizes the environmental factors that affect livestock and livestock interactions. Standard livestock texts should be consulted for detailed management practices. The bibliography lists some of the more comprehensive of these, especially those that are most appropriate for tropical latitudes.

Traditional livestock texts cover the common domesticated animals, such as the cow, sheep, goat, and chicken. This manual also deals with animals that are unique to certain areas. The intent here is to stimulate thinking about possible options and to stress the uniqueness of local environments in tropical areas. In other words, there may be a local but relatively unknown or overlooked animal that has great potential for development as a livestock project.

Many references are made to the goal of developing a farming system that is compatible with the environment. Just as a tree or wild animal is part of a forest, a livestock project is a part of a farming system. A farming system is an organizational structure that interlinks the various activities of farmers and the distribution of resources. Farming systems may be based on one major activity (for example, the growing of coffee for export), but also may include other activities that do not conflict with respect to labor requirements, use of land area, or use of other resources. An integrated farming system is characterized by strong interconnections among various farming activities that serve to conserve resources and labor and to reduce the need for imported feeds and fertilizers.

One goal of livestock management is to increase production per animal, which at the same time increases total production on a given area of land. Although this may be the goal of a project, a broader view places livestock production in juxtaposition with local environments, local agricultural systems, and community traditions.

Thus this manual emphasizes the following key concepts:

  • maintenance of environmental balance through recycling, regeneration and knowledge of interactions in natural systems

  • active involvement of local people in planning, decision-making, and management

  • preference for traditional agricultural techniques that have a sound ecological basis

  • integration of livestock, cropping, and other land-use systems

WHAT IS A SMALL-SCALE LIVESTOCK PROJECT?
Small-scale livestock projects are developed at the local level and are designed primarily for the benefit of local people. Such projects may involve a few small farmers or herders, or an entire rural community working in a cooperative effort.

A good small-scale livestock project:

  • involves local people in planning, decision-making, and management

  • respects the organization of the community

  • encourages regular communication among participants

  • addresses common problems and needs

  • uses technology appropriate to the region

  • includes practical and relevant training for participants

  • enhances personal and community self-reliance

  • takes advantage of local production and consumption patterns

  • contributes to overall community well-being

ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND LIVESTOCK PROJECTS
An environmentally sound livestock project works with natural cycles and against environmental degradation. Because all parts of the environment are interrelated, such a project avoids the introduction of substances with unknown properties that might contaminate the soil and water or harm plants and animals. An environmentally sound project uses local resources wisely, works with livestock that are appropriate to the environment, and recycles nutrients back to the soil. Such a project actually may enhance the environment by encouraging beneficial changes that contribute to environmental health. The overall goal is to contribute to a sustainable agricultural system.

About the author: Published By: VOLUNTEERS IN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 710, Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 276-1800 Fax: (703) 243-1865
E-Mail: vita@vita.org

Understanding Dairy Goat Production
ISBN: 0-86619-318-9
[C]1990, Volunteers in Technical Assistance

Agricultural Research Service



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