|Article Index||"Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects"||Article Index|
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|ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND SMALL-SCALE LIVESTOCK PROJECTS||
Table Of Contents
WHAT IS A SMALL-SCALE LIVESTOCK PROJECT?
ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND LIVESTOCK PROJECTS
Chapter II - IMPORTANCE OF ECOLOGY IN LIVESTOCK-PROJECT PLANNING
The Web of Life
COMPETITION AMONG ANIMALS
FOOD QUANTITY AND QUALITY
VALUE OF ANIMALS IN A FARMING SYSTEM
MANAGEMENT BY ISOLATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT
THE ENVIRONMENT AND LOCAL CULTURE
TRENDS IN LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
Chapter III - BEGINNING THE PLANNING PROCESS
ENVIRONMENTAL AND COMMUNITY GUIDELINES
Chapter IV - LIVESTOCK CHARACTERISTICS: BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING
Browsers and Grazers
Horses, Mules, and Donkeys
Camels, Alpacas, and Llamas
Rabbits and Guinea Pigs
INTRODUCTION OF NEW BREEDS OR SPECIES
Chapter V - THE SOIL AND NUTRIENT CYCLES
Chapter VI - MANAGEMENT OF WASTES AND NUTRIENTS
Chapter VII - HEALTH AND HUSBANDRY
Chapter VIII - AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Chapter IX - MAKING THE PLAN WORK
The Environment and Development Program of CODEL serves the private and voluntary development community by providing workshops, information, and materials designed to document the urgency, feasibility, and potential of an approach to small-scale development that stresses the interdependence of human and natural resources. This manual is one of several materials developed under the Program to assist development workers in taking the physical environment into account during project planning, implementation, and evaluation. For more information, contact CODEL Environment and Development Program at 475 Riverside Drive, Room 1842, New York, New York 10115 USA.
ABOUT WINROCK INTERNATIONAL
ABOUT HEIFER PROJECT INTERNATIONAL
HPI provides funding, livestock, and materials for livestock development projects. It also provides technical expertise and training, publishes a newsletter on appropriate practical livestock technology and distributes practical educational materials.
HPI assistance is provided without regard to race, creed, or political origin, and in a manner which requires the recipient to share the increase usual]y by passing on the first female offspring to other families. Projects are designed so as to be self-supporting and perpetuating. To accomplish this, plans and agreements are made with indigenous organizations.
GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING SERIES
Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects, 1981 (Also in Spanish)
Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects, 1983 (Translations in Spanish and French in process)
Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects, 1985 (English only)
This manual is the fifth volume in the Guidelines for Planning series. The series was developed in response to needs of private development agency field and counterpart staff for simplified technical information in order to plan environmentally sound small-scale projects in Third World countries. Titles of the other volumes in the series are listed on the opposite page.
The preparation of this volume has been a collaborative effort of Coordination in Development, Inc. (CODEL), Heifer Project International (HPI), and Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development. An Advisory Committee composed of representatives of the three agencies guided the preparation of the manual. These include Andres Martinez, Winrock International; the Rev. John Ostdiek, CODEL; Armin Schmidt, Heifer Project International; in addition to the three coordinators listed at the end of this preface.
Initial research was carried out and a basic draft prepared by Dr. Richard Rice, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Arizona and Dr. Milo Cox, School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona. The coordinators are grateful to Drs. Rice and Cox for their contribution to the final product. The text was further developed and extensively revised by Linda Jacobs.
Linda Jacobs, the author of this volume, has prepared the illustrations for four of the five volumes in the Guidelines for Planninq series. Ms. Jacobs holds a degree in Biology from Cornell University and served with the Peace Corps in Colombia. For the last eight years she has been living and working with Native Americans in Arizona. She has brought to the project a special interest in, and small-farm experience with livestock. In addition, Ms. Jacobs made good use of her writing and illustrating skills. She is presently teaching at the Navajo Community College, Tsaile, Arizona.
Following the procedure used for the previous volumes, a lengthy review process has involved a number of technical resource persons and potential users in the field. The following have reviewed the manual in addition to the Advisory Committee:
Milo Cox, University of Arizona
John Dieterly, Heifer Project International
Peter F. Ffolliott, University of Arizona
Peter J. Grill, Mennonite Central Committee
I.F. Harder, Heifer Project International
Sister Sharee Hurtgen, St. Jude Hospital, St. Lucia
Robert K. Pelant, Heifer Project International
Roald Peterson, UN/FAO (retired)
James O'Rourke, Utah State University
Richard W. Rice, University of Arizona
Sister Mary Ann Smith, CODEL
Ron Tempest, Germantown Academy
Gregg Wiitala, Technoserve, Inc., Kenya
Gerald G. Williams, Heifer Project International
These reviewers offered extensive, substantive, and constructive suggestions for improving the review draft. The suggestions were a significant assistance in preparing the final manuscript. The coordinators greatly appreciate the contributions of these reviewers and the other members of the Advisory Committee.
We welcome comments from readers of the book. A questionnaire is inserted for your convenience. Please share your reactions with us.
Will R. Getz, Winrock International
Helen L. Vukasin, CODEL
Chapter I - A DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY
A DIFFERENT APPROACH
Traditional livestock texts cover the common domesticated animals, such as the cow, sheep, goat, and chicken. This manual also deals with animals that are unique to certain areas. The intent here is to stimulate thinking about possible options and to stress the uniqueness of local environments in tropical areas. In other words, there may be a local but relatively unknown or overlooked animal that has great potential for development as a livestock project.
Many references are made to the goal of developing a farming system that is compatible with the environment. Just as a tree or wild animal is part of a forest, a livestock project is a part of a farming system. A farming system is an organizational structure that interlinks the various activities of farmers and the distribution of resources. Farming systems may be based on one major activity (for example, the growing of coffee for export), but also may include other activities that do not conflict with respect to labor requirements, use of land area, or use of other resources. An integrated farming system is characterized by strong interconnections among various farming activities that serve to conserve resources and labor and to reduce the need for imported feeds and fertilizers.
One goal of livestock management is to increase production per animal, which at the same time increases total production on a given area of land. Although this may be the goal of a project, a broader view places livestock production in juxtaposition with local environments, local agricultural systems, and community traditions.
Thus this manual emphasizes the following key concepts:
WHAT IS A SMALL-SCALE LIVESTOCK PROJECT?
A good small-scale livestock project:
ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND LIVESTOCK PROJECTS
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